In 2012, many campuses saw a dramatic increase in the cost of giving students access to copyrighted material, with many administrations passing that cost directly onto students. Since that time, various court rulings have resulted in an expanded definition of Fair Dealing, which covers materials used for educational purposes. This expansion has had a positive impact on many students, faculty and staff, and reflects the notion that education should be for the public good. As of the fall of 2017, the Copyright Modernization Act is under review, and could negatively impact the positive strides that have been made in copyright law.